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Consonant group 1

This lesson assumes you have already completed the corresponding lesson in the "Reading Arabic" chapter.

Group1: baa', taa' and thaa'

Let's review the three letters in Group 1.

Independent Final Medial Initial

As you can see the placement of the dots is the only difference between these letters.

Initial Form

Initial Form is a downward stroke that hooks to the left.

Example: baa'






The placement of the dots is as follows:
  • baa' - One dot below the initial downward stroke
  • taa' - Two dots above the initial downward stroke
  • thaa' - Three dots above the initial downward stroke



Medial Form

Medial form continues from the previous letter and quickly spikes up then back down.

Example: taa'




The placement of the dots is as follows:
  • baa' - One dot below the spike
  • taa' - Two dots above the spike
  • thaa' - Three dots above the spike


Final Form

Example: thaa'




The placement of the dots is as follows:
  • baa' - One dot below the final loop
  • taa' - Two dots above the final loop
  • thaa' - Three dots above the final loop



Independent Form

Example: baa'




The placement of the dots is as follows:
  • baa' - One dot below the middle of the letter
  • taa' - Two dots above the middle of the letter
  • thaa' - Three dots above the middle of the letter



Short Cut: Two Dots

In certain regions it is common to simplify the two dots in letters like taa' and qaaf with a short horizontal line.


You should get used to reading both styles and you can use whichever you prefer in your own writing.

Short Cut: Three Dots

Similar to the shortcut for two dots, the three dots in letters like thaa' and shiin are often replaced with a small triangular "hat".