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Remaining letters

We will now cover the last three letters. All of these letters are connecting.

miim - م
The letter miim is pronounced like 'm' as in 'mike'.



Transliteration: m

Writing: The initial and medial forms are small loops. In print the final and independent position looks very different but when hand-written they are actually written as small loops with a tail going down (writing is covered in detail in lessons under 'Writing Arabic').

Independent Final Medial Initial

Let's compare the medial forms for miim and 3ayn since they are both small loops.

miim 3ayn


Notice how the miim is more circular and close to the bottom line whereas 3ayn is more like an upside down tear shape above the bottom line.

Example 1: laam + Haa + miim + TM

Meat - laHm
لَحم


Here we start with laam (which looks like an 'alif but connects to the left) with a fatHa to give us 'la'. Then we have Haa in medial position with no diacritics to give us 'laH'. Finally we have miim in final posiion giving us 'laHm'.

nuun - ن
The letter nuun is pronounced like 'n' as in 'Nancy'.



Transliteration: n

Writing: The initial and medial forms are written just like baa' except with the single dot written above the line.

Independent Final Medial Initial


Example 2: 'alif + thaa + nuun + 'alif + nuun

Two - 'ithnaan
إثنان

We start with the 'alif. Since it is the first letter it must simply be a seat for a short vowel. Since the hamza appears below the 'alif it is a kasrah, giving us 'i. Then we have a thaa and a nuun, both without diacritics, giving us 'ithn. The 'alif in the middle of the word must be a long 'aa' so we get 'ithnaa. Finally we have another nuun, this time in final form, giving us 'ithnaan.

haa - ه
The letter haa is pronounced like 'h' as in 'hill'. It is a lot less breathy than the h you get from Haa.



Transliteration: h

Writing: The independent and final forms are just like the taaʾ marbuuTah written without two dots above.

Independent Final Medial Initial