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Consonant groups 9 and 10

We will now cover two more groups of letters. All of these letters are connecting.

Although the Independent positions for these pairs look similar, the other forms are not as similar as the other pairs we've seen so far.

laam - ل
The letter laam is pronounced like 'l' as in 'lamb'.



Transliteration: l

Writing: The main characteristic of laam is a straight vertical line like the 'alif. Unlike the 'alif the laam is a connecting letter.

If you are confused about whether a vertical line is laam or 'alif, just see if it is connecting. In the final/independent forms the laam has a tail where the 'alif does not.
Independent Final Medial Initial


Example 1: thaa + laam + thaa
Third - thulth
ثُلث

Here we start with thaa and Dammah to give us 'thu'. Then we see a vertical line that looks like an 'alif but is connecting. This is how we know it is a laam and since there are no diacritics it gives us 'thul'. Finally we have another thaa, also without diacritics, giving us 'thulth'.

laam + 'alif
Since laam and 'alif are so similar in form there is a special form used when laam is followed by an 'alif to reduce confusion. Instead of writing out the two letters they are replaced by a seperate form.
Independent Final

This is actually a pretty common combination so get familiar with it.

kaaf - ك
The letter kaaf is pronounced like 'k' as in 'king'.



Transliteration: k

Writing: The final and independent forms of kaaf are just like laam with a little squiggle/lightning bolt above the tail. The initial and medial forms have a distinctive bent line shape.
Independent Final Medial Initial


Example 2: kaaf + taa + 'alif + baa
Book - kitaab
كِتَاب
We start with kaaf (with its distinctive bent line) and kasrah to give us 'ki'. Then a taa with no diacritics. However since it is followed by an 'alif in the middle of a word it must be a long 'aa' giving us 'kitaa'. Finally we have a baa with no diacritics giving us 'kitaab'.

faa - ف
The letter faa is pronounced like 'f' as in 'fool'.



Transliteration: f

Writing: The primary characteristic of faa is a loop with a single dot over it.
Independent Final Medial Initial


qaaf - ق
The sound for qaaf comes from deep at the base of your throat.

Distinguishing between kaaf and qaaf is difficult for beginners but we will review it in the 'Ear Training' lesson.



Transliteration: q

Writing: The primary characteristic of qaaf is a loop with two dots over it. The initial and medial forms for qaaf are like faa with two dots instead of one. However the the independent and final forms are more like waaw with two dots above. Whereas faa never goes below the line waaw does.
Independent Final Medial Initial

Example 3: faa + waaw + qaaf
Above - fawqa
فَوقَ
We start with faa (loop with a single dot) and a fatHa for 'fa'. Then a waaw in the middle of the word so it could be either a 'w' or the long vowel 'uu'. Since the short vowel 'a' from the last letter doesn't match the 'uu' it must be a 'w' giving us 'faw'. Finally we have qaaf (loop with two dots) and a fatHa giving us 'fawqa'.