<< Previous

Consonant group 2

We will now cover another group of three letters which are different depending on the location/existence of a dot. All the letters in this group are connecting letters.

Haa - ح
The letter Haa has no exact equivalent in English so be sure to listen to the example. A starting point would be the 'h' in 'History'. It is a very aspirated h and you will need to constrict your throat muscles a little to pronounce it correctly:

Transliteration: H

Writing: It may look like the final and independent positions are very different from the initial and medial positions but one way to think of it is that the initial and medial have had everything "below the line" cut off compared with the other two forms. This is a common pattern that you will see for many letters.

Independent Final Medial Initial

jiim - ج
The exact pronounciation for jiim depends on the region and can range from a soft 'j' to a hard 'g' :

Transliteration: j

It is written just like Haa except with a dot below.

Independent Final Medial Initial

khaa - خ
khaa is pronounced like the 'ch' in 'loch' or the 'ch' in 'Challah bread':

Transliteration: kh

It is written just like Haa except with a dot above.

Independent Final Medial Initial

shaddah - ـّ
The shaddah is a diacritic used to show that a consonant should be stressed or doubled.

The shaddah can be combined with one of the diacritics for short vowels to indicate that the consonant should be stressed and then the short vowel occurs.

Let's look at a couple examples using these new letters and the shaddah:

Example 1: Haa + jiim'

Pilgrimage - Hajj

Here is a simple example starting with Haa and the short vowel 'a' so it starts with 'Ha'. The final consonant 'j' is doubled by the shaddah so the result is 'Hajj'.

Example 2: khaa + baa' + 'alif + zaay

Baker - khabbaaz

You haven't seen the last letter yet (zaay) but this is a good example of shaddah combined with a short vowel. We start with khaa combined with the short vowel 'a' to get 'kha'.

Then we have a baa' with both a shaddah and fatHa which means we first have a stressed 'b' followed by the short vowel 'a' to give us 'khabba'. The 'alif doubles the short vowel 'a' and the final letter zaay gives us a 'z' for the word 'khabbaaz'.

Example 3: taa' + Haa + taa'

Below - taHta

This example show Haa in the middle with taa' and fatHa before and after to give us 'taHta'.