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Consonant group 1

We will now cover the first group of consonants that have a similar appearance.

baa' -
The letter baa' is pronounced like 'b' as in 'boy':



Transliteration: b

It is a connecting letter which means it connects to the letters on its left AND letters on its right.

Independent Final Medial Initial

As you can see the characteristic of baa' is a single dot at the bottom of the letter. In fact you can use this to help you remember by learning that: "b is for bottom".

Here is the letter baa' with the three short vowels:

ba bu bi
بَ بُ بِ

Now that you've learned baa', 'alif and hamza let's look at some examples that show how the letters connect to each other:

Example 1: 'alif + baa'

Father - 'ab
أَب  or  أَبْ

These are two ways to write the same thing. The one on the right has the sukun to explicitly show that there is no short vowel after baa'. In general if there are no short vowels then the sukun is implied. We generally will not show the sukun unless it is required to remove ambiguity.

Here the 'alif is the first letter and therefore it must be used as a seat for the hamza/glottal stop and the short vowel 'a'. The two letters are separate because the 'alif is non-connecting which means it can't connect to letters on its left.

Example 2: baa'+ 'alif + baa'

Door - baab
باب  or  بَابْ


Once again two ways to write the same thing. The sukun on the right can be implied so is not really necessary. The fatHah over the baa' is also not necessary since the 'alif is used in the middle of the word and so it must be used as the long vowel 'aa'. The initial baa' is a connecting letter so it connects to the 'alif on the left. However 'alif is not a connecting letter so it will not connect to the final baa'.

taa' -
The letter taa' is pronounced like 't' as in 'table':



Transliteration: t

It is a connecting letter.

Independent Final Medial Initial

As you can see the characteristic of taa' is two dots on top of the letter. You can use this to help you remember by learning that: "t is for two".

thaa' -
The letter thaa' is pronounced like 'th' as in 'thistle':



Transliteration: th

It is a connecting letter.

Independent Final Medial Initial

As you can see the characteristic of thaa' is a three dots on top of the letter. You can use this to help you remember by learning that: "th is for three".

Now lets look at example with multiple connecting letters.

Example 3: thaa + baa + taa

To fasten - thabata
ثَبَتَ

In this example we get to see the group 1 letters in initial, medial and final positions. First we have thaa with a fatHa over it giving us 'tha'. Then we have baa with a fatHa over it giving us 'thaba'. Finally we have a taa with a fatHa giving us 'thabata'.